Account permissions and security settings (SharePoint Server 2010)

Published: May 12, 2010 by Microsoft here

In this article:

This article describes Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 administrative and services account permissions. It covers the following areas: Microsoft SQL Server, the file system, file shares, and registry entries.

About account permissions and security settings

Many of the SharePoint Server 2010 baseline account permissions and security settings are configured by the SharePoint Configuration Wizard (Psconfig) and the Farm Creation Wizard, both of which are run during a Complete installation.

Administrative accounts

Most of the SharePoint Server 2010 administrative account permissions are configured automatically during the setup process by one of the following SharePoint Server 2010 components:

  • The SharePoint Configuration Wizard (Psconfig).
  • The Farm Creation Wizard.
  • The SharePoint Central Administration Web site.
  • Windows PowerShell.
Setup user administrator account

This account is used to set up each server in your farm by running The SharePoint Configuration Wizard, the initial Farm Creation Wizard, and Windows PowerShell. For the examples in this article, the setup user administrator account is used for farm administration, and it can be managed using Central Administration. Some configuration options require local administration permissions: for example, configuration of the SharePoint Server 2010 Search query server. The setup user administrator account requires the following permissions:

  • It must have domain user account permissions.
  • It must be a member of the local administrators group on each server in the SharePoint Server 2010 farm, excluding SQL Server and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server.
  • This account must have access to the SharePoint Server 2010 databases.
  • If you use any Windows PowerShell operations that affect a database, the setup user administrator account must be a member of the db_owner role.
  • This account must be assigned to the securityadmin and dbcreator SQL Server security roles during setup and configuration.

noteNote:

The securityadmin and dbcreator SQL Server security roles might be required for this account during a complete version to version upgrade because new databases might have to be created and secured for services.

After you run the configuration wizards, machine-level permissions for the setup user administrator account include:

  • Membership in the WSS_ADMIN_WPG Windows security group.
  • Membership in the IIS_WPG role.

After you run the configuration wizards, database permissions include:

  • db_owner on the SharePoint Server 2010 server farm configuration database.
  • db_owner on the SharePoint Server 2010 Central Administration content database.

WarningWarning:

If the setup user administrator account is removed as a login from the computer running SQL Server, the configuration wizards will not run correctly. If you run the configuration wizards using an account that does not have the appropriate special SQL role membership, or access as db_owner on the databases, the configuration wizards will not run correctly.

Farm service account

The server farm account is also referred to as the database access account and is used as the application pool identity for Central Administration, and as the process account for the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Timer service. The server farm account requires the following permissions:

  • It must have domain user account permissions.

Additional permissions are automatically granted to the server farm account on Web servers and application servers that are joined to a server farm.

After you run the SharePoint Configuration Wizard, machine-level permissions include:

  • Membership in the WSS_ADMIN_WPG Windows security group for the SharePoint Foundation 2010 Timer service.
  • Membership in WSS_RESTRICTED_WPG for the Central Administration and Timer service application pools.
  • Membership in WSS_WPG for the Central Administration application pool.

After you run the configuration wizards, SQL Server and database permissions include:

  • Dbcreator fixed server role.
  • Securityadmin fixed server role.
  • db_owner for all SharePoint Server 2010 databases.
  • Membership in the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role for the SharePoint Server 2010 server farm configuration database.
  • Membership in the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role for the SharePoint Server 2010 SharePoint_Admin content database.
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 search service account

The SharePoint Foundation 2010 search service account is used as the service account for the SharePoint Foundation 2010 Search service. The SharePoint Foundation 2010 search service account requires the following permission configuration settings:

  • This account must have domain user account permissions.

The following machine-level permission is configured automatically: The search service account is a member of WSS_WPG.

The following SQL Server and database permissions are conferred by membership in the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role in the server farm configuration database:

  • Read access to the server farm configuration database.
  • Read access to the SharePoint_Admin content database.
  • This account is assigned the db_owner role for the SharePoint Foundation 2010 search database.
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 search content access account

The SharePoint Foundation 2010 search content access account is used by the SharePoint Foundation 2010 Search service to crawl content across sites. The SharePoint Foundation 2010 search content access account requires the following permission configuration settings:

  • This account must have domain user account permissions.
  • This account must not be a member of the farm administrators group.

The following SQL Server and database permissions are configured automatically:

  • Read access to the server farm configuration database.
  • Read access to the SharePoint_Admin content database.
  • This account is assigned to the db_owner role for the SharePoint Foundation 2010 search database.

A full Read policy for the SharePoint Foundation 2010 search content access account is created on all Web applications.

Service application accounts

This section describes the service application accounts that are setup by default during installation.

Application pool account

The application pool account is used for application pool identity. The application pool account requires the following permission configuration settings:

The following machine-level permission is configured automatically: The application pool account is a member of WSS_WPG.

The following SQL Server and database permissions for this account are configured automatically:

  • The application pool accounts for Web applications are assigned to the db_owner role for the content databases.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the farm configuration database.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the SharePoint_Admin content database.
SharePoint Server search service account

The SharePoint Server 2010 Search service account is used as the service account for the SharePoint Server 2010 Search service. The SharePoint Server Search Service is an NT Service, which is used by all Search Service Applications. For any given server, there is only one instance of this service. The SharePoint Server 2010 search service account requires the following permission configuration setting: The SharePoint Server 2010 search service account is granted access to the propagation location share (or shares) on all search query servers in a farm.

The following machine-level permission is configured automatically: The SharePoint Server 2010 search service account is a member of WSS_WPG.

The following SQL Server and database permissions are configured automatically:

  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the farm configuration database.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the SharePoint_Admin content database.
Default content access account

The default content access account is used within a specific service application to crawl content, unless a different authentication method is specified by a crawl rule for a URL or URL pattern. This account requires the following permission configuration settings:

  • The default content access account must be a domain user account and it must have read access to external or secure content sources that you want to crawl by using this account.
  • For SharePoint Server sites that are not part of the server farm, this account must be explicitly granted full read permissions to the Web applications that host the sites.
  • This account must not be a member of the farm administrators group.
Content access accounts

Content access accounts are accounts that are configured to access content by using the Search administration crawl rules feature. This type of account is optional and can be configured when you create a new crawl rule. For example, external content (such as a file share) might require this separate content access account. This account requires the following permission configuration settings:

  • The content access account must have read access to external or secure content sources that this account is configured to access.
  • For SharePoint Server sites that are not part of the server farm, this account must be explicitly granted full read permissions to the Web applications that host the sites.
Excel Services unattended service account

The Excel Services unattended service account is used by Excel Services to connect to external data sources that require a user name and password that are based on operating systems other than Windows for authentication. If this account is not configured, Excel Services will not attempt to connect to these types of data sources. Although account credentials are used to connect to data sources of operating systems other than Windows, if the account is not a member of the domain, Excel Services cannot access it. This account must be a domain user account.

My Sites application pool account

The My Sites application pool account must be a domain user account. This account must not be a member of the farm administrators group.

The following machine-level permission is configured automatically: This account is a member of WSS_WPG.

The following SQL Server and database permissions are configured automatically:

  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the farm configuration database.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the SharePoint_Admin content database.
Other application pool accounts

The other application pool account must be a domain user account. This account must not be a member of the administrators group on any computer in the server farm.

The following machine-level permission is configured automatically: This account is a member of WSS_WPG.

The following SQL Server and database permissions are configured automatically:

  • This account is assigned to the db_owner role for the content databases.
  • This account is assigned to the db_owner role for search databases associated with the Web application.
  • This account must have read and write access to the associated service application database.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the farm configuration database.
  • This account is assigned to the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role associated with the SharePoint_Admin content database.

Database roles

This section describes the database roles that are either setup by default during installation, or that can be optionally configured.

WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS database role

The WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS database role applies to the application pool account for each Web application that is registered in SharePoint. This enables the Web applications to query and update the site map, and have read-only access to other items in the configuration database. Setup assigns the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role to the following databases:

  • The SharePoint_Config database (the configuration database).
  • The SharePoint_AdminContent database.

Members of the WSS_CONTENT_APPLICATION_POOLS role are granted the execute permission for a subset of the stored procedures for the database. In addition, members of this role are granted the select permission to the Versions table (dbo.Versions) in the SharePoint_AdminContent database. For other databases, the accounts planning tool indicates that access to read these databases is automatically configured. In some cases, limited access to write to a database is also automatically configured. To provide this access, permissions for stored procedures are configured. For the SharePoint_Config database, for example, access to the following stored procedures is automatically configured:

  • proc_dropEmailEnabledList
  • proc_dropEmailEnabledListsByWeb
  • proc_dropSiteMap
  • proc_markForDeletionEmailEnabledList
  • proc_markForDeletionEmailEnabledListsBySite
  • proc_markForDeletionEmailEnabledListsByWeb
  • proc_putDistributionListToDelete
  • proc_putEmailEnabledList
  • proc_putSiteMap
WSS_SHELL_ACCESS database role

The secure WSS_SHELL_ACCESS database role on the configuration database replaces the need to add an administration account as a db_owner on the configuration database. By default, the setup account is assigned to the WSS_SHELL_ACCESS database role. Membership in this role is granted and removed by using a Windows PowerShell command. Setup assigns the WSS_SHELL_ACCESS role to the following databases:

  • The SharePoint_Config database (the configuration database).
  • One or more of the SharePoint Content databases. This is configurable by using the Windows PowerShell command that manages membership, and the object assigned to this role.

Members of the WSS_SHELL_ACCESS role are granted the execute permission for all of the stored procedures for the database. In addition, members of this role are granted the read and write permissions on all of the database tables.

Group permissions

This section describes permissions of groups that are created by the SharePoint Server 2010 setup and configuration tools.

WSS_ADMIN_WPG

WSS_ADMIN_WPG has read and write access to local resources. The application pool accounts for the Central Administration and Timer services are in WSS_ADMIN_WPG. The following table shows the WSS_ADMIN_WPG registry entry permissions.

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